The petrographic examination of hardened hydraulic concrete details the condition of concrete sampled from a construction and determines the causes of its inferior quality (ASTM C856).

The petrographic examination identifies the type of deterioration, and in conjunction with other tests, determines whether the hardened concrete is as specified.

The petrographic examination determines the physical and chemical characteristics of aggregates considered for use in hydraulic-cement concrete (ASTM C295, CSA A23.2).

The petrographic examination determines the composition and the quality of building stones, roofing slate, concrete products, floor finishes, mortar, plaster, bricks, terracotta and other ceramics in accordance with ASTM and European standards.


  • lithological composition and the physical characteristics of the fine and coarse aggregate;
  • size, extension and infill material of cracks (e.g., Photomicrographs 1 and 5), and type and distribution of embedded items;
  • type and intensity of deterioration (e.g., Photomicrograph 2 and 3);
  • condition of the paste and its bond with the aggregate;
  • percentage and the shape of the voids (e.g., Photomicrograph 5);
  • in some cases, the water-cement ratio can be determined by scanning electron microscopy.

All the reports follow the recommendations of the ASTM or CSA unless otherwise requested.

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Photomicrograph 1

Photomicrograph 2

Photomicrograph 3

Photomicrograph 4

Photomicrograph 5